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Hammer toe is a flexible or rigid flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the lesser toe. A similar deformity that also involves the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint is known as claw toe. These deformities result from an imbalance in the dynamic flexion and extension forces that cross the lesser MTP, PIP, and (in the case of claw toe) DIP joints. Surgical treatments of lesser toe deformities have historically been based on altering the relative lengths of the toe and its tendons. Options have included PIP joint resection arthroplasty, PIP joint fusion, tendon transfers, tendon lengthening, and metatarsal shortening. 

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